The Town of Stockbridge is located in the northwestern portion of Windsor County, Vermont. It comprises an area of approximately 28,300 acres, or 45.41 square miles.

Stockbridge is bordered by six other towns, Barnard to the east, Bridgewater and Sherburne to the south, Bethel and Rochester to the north, and Pittsfield to the west.

Stockbridge is located in the physiographic region known as the Intermountain Valleys and foothills of the Green Mountains. This area is characterized by mountainous terrain, narrow valleys and a few peaks above 2,500 feet. In the case of Stockbridge, the typically narrow valleys are bisected by the White and Tweed Rivers and Fletcher and Stony Brooks.

Generally, the soils of the hillsides and woodlands of Stockbridge were formed by the glaciers and are typically shallow, stony, and present limitations ranging from moderate to severe for community development involving septic tank sewerage disposal and road construction. These limitations increase in their severity in direct proportion to slope percentages.

The soils in the river and brook valleys have been formed in water-deposited materials on terraces and old lake plains. Community development within these soils is limited by flooding potential. When out of the flood prone areas, soils are generally favorable for on-site sewage systems, roads, and building foundations.